Th Quasar blockchain is built with and secured by the Tendermint consensus engine. Tendermint is a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus algorithm designed with Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT), meaning that it is able to operate reliably even if up to ⅓ of its nodes fail or act maliciously. Validators can participate in committing blocks to the blockchain by staking a required sum in $QSR.

Tendermint consensus works by offering the opportunity to commit a block to a randomly selected validator at regular intervals. Validators can increase their chances of being selected by staking more $QSR. Upon successfully generating a new block, the validator receives a portion of transaction fees from the network as a reward. If a selected validator is unavailable or acts maliciously, they are penalized (referred to as slashing) and lose a portion of their stake.

Non-validator $QSR holders can delegate their $QSR to validators to share in a portion of rewards for successful block generation (and slashing penalties when a selected node fails). These incentives promote security by encouraging greater decentralization of the liquidity powering the consensus layer, making it significantly more difficult for a validator or group of colluding validators to disrupt the network.

Strategy Keeper Network

The Strategy Keeper Network (S.K.N.) is our decentralized system that automates verification of off-chain strategy update proposals and executes them on-chain. It consists of Proposers and Verifiers:

  • Proposer: These are strategy specific entities that require fast and efficient on-chain updates to their related vault strategies.

  • Verifier: They are a set of validators selected by Quasar Governance and are rewarded in $QSR token for their verification work

Proposers propose a strategy update (for example a CL Pool range parameter) which is then circulated to all verifiers. Verifiers review and confirm it is not malicious without passing judgement on the strategy itself. They sign the update as verification and send the signature to the proposer. The updates are then posted on-chain by the proposer for immediate execution.

Cosmos SDK and CosmWasm

The languages used by Cosmos SDK and CosmWasm, Golang and Rust, are general-purpose, type-safe, and widely audited. CosmWasm was designed to preclude reentrancy attacks, a major class of exploits to which Ethereum smart contracts are vulnerable. This is discussed in greater detail under the actor model section of Quasar's documentation. The Cosmos SDK also utilizes an object-capability model which confines code implementations to their intended use cases by preventing unnecessary rights from being included with shared objects by default.

Security Audits

We are regularly audited by Halborn, an award-winning blockchain cybersecurity firm. They evaluate our blockchain and smart contracts to identify and eliminate any vulnerabilities, bugs, or possible exploits. They deliver detailed reports of their work which we generally make publicly available. Additional testing is also being provided by Lightshift Capital. Quasar has also partnered with the cybersecurity firm Groom Lake for additional monitoring and security for our off-chain processes.

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